Mediterranean Cane

I spent the Christmas and New Year’s holiday on the island of Gozo, which is part of Malta. The weather was generally nice, and the island was quiet, compared to the summer when I normally visit. The Gozitans know how to celebrate Christmas and New Year, with concerts and performances in the squares and in the churches.

St-George Square, Rabat, Gozo during Christmas

St-George Square, Rabat, Gozo during Christmas

Gozo is a dry island, and there are not many trees. I was surprised to read in the local Museum that in the past the island was covered in woodland, which was cut for construction and fuel. You would not believe that, as currently the main woody vegetation is made up of olive and fig trees. I also noticed that many of the dry valleys on the island have clumps of reeds that look remarkably like bamboos from a distance, and the local farmers call them canes.

gozo-grass

This year, I walked up the dry valley in Mgarr-I-Xini, and I found myself in a forest of these canes. The stems have nodes and the roots have rhizomes, just like the bamboos that we see in many parts of the Global south.

close-uprhizomes

But the leaves clearly show that they are not real bamboo species, and I therefore took this opportunity to learn more about these plants.  Wikipedia tells me that these reeds are Arundo donax, or giant cane. Other common names apparently include Spanish cane, wild cane, and giant reed, and A. donax is native to the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. Wikipedie says that plants generally grow to 6 metres high, with hollow stems 2 to 3 centimetres in diameter. The leaves are alternate, 30 to 60 centimetres long and 2 to 6 centimetres wide with a tapered tip, grey-green, and have a hairy tuft at the base.

leaves-close-up

The canes in Gozo used to be the main raw material for fishing traps and lobster pots, but these are now often manufactured from plastic an imported from outside the country. Fortunately, there are still some fishing traps to be found, and I saw these for sale in the market on I-Tokk in Rabat, Gozo.

fishing-baskets

The other use of the reeds is the manufacture of curtains that traditional houses have on the front door. It provides privacy when the door is open during the hot summer days. We do this ourselves, as a breeze in the courtyard is very nice, but you do not want the house to be open to the elements and the casual passer-by.
Many of the modern curtains come from the Far East, as it is often cheaper to buy imported mass-produced goods, than hand-made local produce, but fortunately there are still some local manufacturers on the island. My wife and I bought a custom-made curtain from a traditional manufacturer in Gharb, and he has no website or other means of advertising. We got to his house by talking to a lady in the street and asking where he lives. I forgot to take a picture, so will share a photo from the internet.

bamboo-curtain-wordpress

It was an interesting discovery to learn about the Gozo canes, and although they are not a bamboo species, I can relate to them.

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The (sea)grass is not always greener on the other side…

Removing sea grass deposits from San Blas beach on the island of Gozo, Malta has become an issue for heated discussions in the local paper.

San Blas is a small cove on the north coast of Gozo with a sandy beach in between rocks.  It is a relatively undisturbed natural area, protected under local legislation, and visits are limited as the access road is very steep.

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Normally there is some seagrass washed onto the beach which comes from the extensive beds of Posidonia oceanica that are along the coast of the Maltese islands,  but nothing to write home about.  The accumulation of dead seagrass on beaches in the Mediterranean is a natural phenomenon, and this happens after every storm.  A study by the University of Malta (A. Deidun, S. Saliba, P.J. Schembri, 2011.  Quantitative assessment and physical characterisation of Posidonia oceanica wrack beached along the Maltese coastline.  Biol. Mar. Mediterr, 18 (1): 307-308) estimated that in 2011 some 42,000 cubic metres of seagrass debris is deposited along the Maltese coast at any one time.  This seems a lot, but the situation varies from day-to-day according to the wind direction and the force of the waves.  From previous visits to San Blass during the past ten years we know only too well that some days there is more grass on the beach than other days.

Last weekend Gozo experienced heavy storms.  Sadly, two swimmers lost their lives due to the strong currents and waves, but the weather also played havoc with some of the beaches.  The storm caused so much vegetation to wash onto San Blas beach that heavy machinery was deployed to try and clear it, and this was as far as I know the first time this was done in San Blas Bay.

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The use of heavy equipment did not seem to be the answer, as there were still a lot of weeds floating in the water, and the work generated an enormous mountain of dead vegetation, which had to be piled up on the rocks.  And, in the process of scooping up the sea grass, a considerable amount of the sand also disappeared.

Cleaning up beaches is a common action for tourist locations, but a recent report from Sardinia suggests that any removal of seagrass deposits from the beach is not good for the ecosystem and may affect the morphology of the beach.  (Simeone, S., De Falco, G. 2013. Posidonia oceanica banquette removal: sedimentological, geomorphological and ecological implications. Proceedings 12th International Coastal Symposium (Plymouth, England), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, pp. 1045-1050, ISSN 0749-0208.)

The San Blas issue has generated a heated discussion in the local papers, with comments in support and against the action.  The reality is that the exercise was not successful as one week later, there is less sand along the beach and there is still a lot of seaweed.

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The big question is: What would have been the alternative?  Removal by hand would have been difficult as the bank of sea grass was at least one metre high.  What to do with the pile of dead leaves?  There is talk of using the dead seagrass leaves for bio-energy (a next research project for the University of Malta?), but that would have required transport from the beach to another site.  Put it on a barge and dump it back out to sea?  It would be washed up at the next strong wind.

So – maybe the simple answer is to leave the beach alone.  Inform the tourists that the washing up of dead seagrass leaves is part of a natural cycle, that seagrass beds are very valuable for all kinds of reasons and that the dead leaves will wash away again at the next storm.  It may deter a few visitors, but I guess that most tourists will be happy if there is access to the sea, and enough sand left to lay their beach towel.

Avoid jellyfish – if you can

I am on the island of Gozo in the middle of the Mediterranean, and one of the big questions over coffee every day is: “which beach is free of jellyfish”?  Local advice is to gauge the wind direction, and go to the opposite side of the island, as the jellyfish will be blown away from shore.  Gozo is one of the islands in the Maltese archipelago, and Malta now has a website with daily news about jellyfish, so you can check in the morning before setting off.  Nevertheless, I have seen several swimmers come out of the water with nasty rashes and young children especially get extremely upset when stung in the water.   The main culprit in this part of the Mediterranean seems to be the Mauve Stinger (Pelagia Noctiluca).

Pelagia Noctiluca - Mauve Stinger - Wikimedia

Pelagia Noctiluca – Wikimedia

What to do when you get stung is another source of debate.  Scraping the sting with a credit card is supposed to help remove any tentacles that may have got stuck, and dousing the area in vinegar is a popular local way to reduce the pain.  One of the best remedies is to stay in salty seawater, but definitely not to use fresh water or ice as this aggravates the discomfort.

Apparently, jellyfish were not recognised as a big problem in the past, but these days it is a deciding factor for tourists and local visitors alike on where to get into the water in the Mediterranean.  It has been an issue here in Malta for several years, although I must admit that the past week has not been bad.  The BBC reported that in July this year the UK Foreign Office updated its travel advice for Greece in the wake of large jellyfish blooms there, but Malta seems to have been spared so far.

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San Blas Bay – Gozo, Malta

There are competing views about why jellyfish are increasing in numbers, and climate change is often cited, although there is no conclusive evidence.   Pollution is causing algal blooms which deprive the seas of oxygen, and under such conditions shellfish and other species struggle to survive, but jellyfish do well.  Another cause may be overfishing because by reducing fish stocks we have taken away some of the natural competition and jellyfish have taken advantage of this.

However some scientists say that the increase in jelly is part of a natural cycle, and there is rapid growth and decline of the numbers of jellyfish over a period of time.  Maybe that is a reason why this week I have not seen the numbers that were in the seas around Gozo last year.  Let’s hope it stays this way for the rest of the summer!